Monday, January 10, 2011

Vertebrate Animals(Ronak, Chen Yu, Hao Ming)

I am posting this to summarise our key learning points in our research for vertebrates in point form:

Well, this is what we have discovered. For vertebrates, they are part of the further classification of animals. Animals which are vertebrates have a backbone while animals which are invertebrates do not have backbones. Vertebrates are:

1) Animals with skeleton and bones made up in their body, just like us.

2) Vertebrates include fishes, birds, mammals and many more.

3) They are the most advanced on Earth and their size and mobility helps them to get used of the environment easier.

4) The trait that differentiate between a vertebrate and an invertebrate is that a vertebrate has a spinal cord vertebrae and notochords. The way these things in their body are structured made them special.

5) This is all about having a series of nerves along your dorsal side, which is also known as your back.
6) The notochord is a rod of cartilage which helps to give support and protection to our nerves together with our backbone.

The unique characteristics of mammals:

- Reproduce through giving birth to young alive or laying eggs
- Respire by lungs and have hair/fur as their outer covering
- Feed their young with milk
- There are three bones in the middle ear of every mammal
- These three bones are known as the malleus, incus and stapes

The function of these three bones are that they help mammals in hearing by transferring sound waves from the eardrum to the inner ear.

The general characteristics of mammals:

- Jaws of mammals are made of a single bone on each side
- Have a unique heart, as the main artery turns left when it leaves the heart
- Two sets of teeth in their lifetime(their teeth are only replaced once)
- Have a sheet of muscles and tendons, known as the diaphragm that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity
- Warm blooded animals

English Shepherd Dog 

The characteristics of fishes:

- Can reproduce either by laying eggs or giving birth
- Respire through gills found in the gill cover
- They take in dissolved oxygen in the water
- Have scales as their outer covering, though some do not.

The characteristics of birds:

- Do not have teeth
- Have vestigial tails
- Distinguished from reptiles by features and a thin, hollow flight skeleton
- Feathers as their outer covering
- Reproduce by laying eggs instead of giving birth
- Have hollow bones in their wings to make flight easier

 The characteristics of reptiles:

- Have an amniotic egg, dry skin and thoracic breathing
- Cold-Blooded Animals and scaly skinned
- Reproduce by laying eggs and have scales as their outer covering
- Some of them like the crocodile can stay in water and on land

The characteristics of amphibians:

- Respire cutaneously 
- Have legs, lungs, pulmonary veins and a partially divided heart
- Spend part of their life in water and the other part on land

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